Cool jazz

The formal birth of the movement cool took place in 1948 with the publication of the album Birth of the Cool of Thousands Davis, the whole manifesto autodefinitorio and one of the most influential recordings of the history. The new style was stemming straight from the bebop, but it was turning out to be a more cerebral music, which took as a main target the establishment of a “calm” ambience and “meditative”. The cool jazz turned out to be particularly popular between white musicians like Lennie Tristano, partly for its alienation of the African roots of the jazz, but also it found a hollow between the preferences of black musicians who were happening of being simple entertainers to adopt a more active and serious role in the search of its identity musical. Thousands Davis, who had begun its career with Charlie Parker, there gave beginning to the movement with Birth of the Cool (1948), the first one of a series of albumes-Walkin (1954), Thousands (1955), Cookin’, Relaxing, Working or Steaming, all of (1956 – that the bases of the style were sitting. The Modern Jazz Quartet – originally the rhythmic section of Dizzy Gillespie, integrated by Milt Jackson, John Lewis, Percy Heath and Kenny Clarke – published Modern Jazz Quartet with Milt Jackson (1953), Modern Jazz Quartet Volume 2 (1953), and Django (1956), where they were presenting its elegant compositions, in the limit between the baroque thing and the jazzístico. Gunther Schuller was the official initiator of the third stream, a current that was establishing a bridge between the classical music and the jazz, which takes its Jazz Abstractions (1959) as a paradigmatic example, and which counts also between its main representatives Bob Graettinger.

 

Gil Evans produced Gil Evans and Have (1957), Out of the Cool (1959), or Into The Hot (1961), Bill Evans – along with Scott LaFaro and Paul Motian – introduced a new sound in the trio of jazz influenced by the European classical music, and George Russell stood out like interpreter of modal topics. Other outstanding figures were the vibrafonista Teddy Charles, the pianist Ran Blake or imaginative singer Betty Carter. West Coast jazz In the same epoch, on the Coast West, the evolution of the jazz developed for ways less influenced by the musicians of New York of bebop, straight heirs of Lester Young and of the evolution that they had had big bands like those of Woody Herman, Conrad Gozzo, Stan Kenton or Wardell Gray.

The new style, which would end up by being content like the main line of development of the cool, was impelled especially by musicians like Howard Rumsey, Shorty Rogers or Shelly Manne, and it generated works that had an enormous commercial aftereffect, as it is the case of time Out, of Dave Brubeck and Paul Desmond, who turned on the first jazz disc in selling more than one million copies, thanks to the topic “Take Five”.Also Stan Getz obtained an important commercial success, other of the leaders of the movement cool, that was coming from the bands of Stan Kenton, Benny Goodman y Woody Herman and that the bossa would end up by popularizing nongoes, with its discs West Coast Jazz, Early Autumn (1948) and Quartets (1950), while Lee Konitz is considered to be by some critics the quintessence of the musician cool. Gerry Mulligan, other of the main representatives of this current, edited Mulligan Plays Mulligan (1951), Gerry Mulligan Quartet (1952), and Mulligan Quartet (1952); Art Pepper recorded Discoveries (1954), Art Pepper Quartet (1956), Meets the Rhythm Section (1957) and Omega Alpha (1957); Jimmy Giuffre threw Jimmy Giuffre 3 (1956) or Western Suite (1958); Chet Baker published Flock December (1953), Chet Baker and Strings (1954) or Chet Baker Sextet (1954); Boy Hamilton recorded Spectacular (1955), Quintet In Hi Fi (1956) or Mr Jo Jones on Quintet (1956); Jim Hall, finally, stood out for a clean and calm sound – I joust the antithesis of Charlie Christian – that was anticipating the arrival of a type of softer and relaxed jazz.

Hard bop as reaction to the intelectualismo of the bebop, the musicians of the hard bop they claimed the comeback of the jazz to its origins, with special accent in the energy and the spontaneity of the music. The rhythmic element was remaining reinforced, and the alone ones derived from the language of the musicians bebop, acquired more force and vitality, shaping an aggressive and intense music. In fact, the adjective “hard” (five-peseta coin) has in this expression the connotation of “intense”.24 Had special influence between the musicians of the East coast,  and it is linked especially to the black musicians of the cities of the Great Lakes, like Chicago or Detroit. They, “liked the improvisations deeply, the warm sounds, the phrases of pure angles, the explosive rhythms”.

For many authors, the hard bop was a rereading of the bebop “to the advantage of a route that was opened for the pursuit of an uninterrupted tradition in which the deepest roots kept on having an important specific gravity”. Max Roach was one of the initiators of the movement, along with Art Blakey or Sonny Rollins. There stood out also the saxophonists Cannonball Adderley, Phil Woods, Tina Brooks, Hank Mobley, Joe Henderson, Pepper Adams, Benny Golson or Jackie McLean; the trumpeters Woody Shaw, Lee Morgan, Freddie Hubbard, Donald Byrd, Blue Mitchell, Art Farmer or Clark Terry; the pianists Mal Waldron, Bobby Timmons, Horace Parlan or Duke Pearson; the vocalist Abbey Lincoln; the guitarist Kenny Burrell; the counterbassists Reginald Workman, Paul Chambers and Charles Mingus; the drummer Pete La Roca; or the big bands of Thad Jones or Maynard Ferguson. Soul jazz and Funky jazz Intimately related to the hard bop, a jazz style developed, perhaps more specially a way of touching jazz, based on the structures use blues in slow or average tempo, with one “beat” firm and supported, emotionally interpretive, that it happened in calling funky or, later, soul jazz.

A subgenre that was exhibiting Hammond B3 and its pioneers (Wild Bill Davis, Jimmy Smith or Jimmy McGriff) like protagonists, and that was sinking also its roots in the musicians’ works like Horace Silver, Junior Mance, They McCann, Gene Harris, Ramsey Lewis or the singer and pianist Ray Charles. Other outstanding figures of the genre were the organists Brother Jack McDuff, Shirley Scott, Charles Earland, Larry Young or Richard “Groove” Holmes; the guitarists Wes Montgomery, Grant Green or George Benson; or the saxophonists Stanley Turrentine, Willis “Gator” Jackson, Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis, David “Fathead” Newman, Gene Ammons, Houston Person, Jimmy Forrest, King Curtis, Network Holloway, Eddie Harris and Hank Crawford.

Free jazz

The bop evolved very quickly during the fifties and some musicians (George Russell or Charles Mingus between they) developed, from the concepts of intuition and digression that the musician of Lennie Tristano had announced, formulations similar to those who had already happened in the classical music in the twenties, with the irruption, for example, of the atonalidad in the jazz of the sixties. It is generally accepted by the criticism that, to the margin of the already said precedents, the free jazz takes nature letter in 1960, with the publication of the disc namesake of Ornette Coleman and its double quartet, which supposes a stylistic revolution in the jazz, but “not only that, but a putting in crisis, a rereading and a virtual overcoming of everything what had been the jazz, questioning the sociocultural essentials so much like its historical development”. Coleman had already edited previously some discs that were anticipating this explosion, as The Shape of Jazz to Eats or This Is Our Music, both for Atlantic Records. The free jazz did without elements till then essential in the jazz, like the swing, the phrasing or the intonation, opening also to influences of music of the world and being politicized of form much ostensible. In the first sixties there was assisted to one, seemingly, irresistible ascension of the free jazz that, in parallel, received an enormous rejections quantity resumibles in only one phrase:« This is not musical». Criticism that, on the other hand, came not only from the public or from specializing journalists, but from jazz musicians, like Roy Eldridge or Quincy Jones.

A mediados de the decade, practically all the young jazz musicians were influenced by the “free”. Cecil Taylor, Eric Dolphy and Don Cherry were the main initiators of this line, but them there joined Carla Bley, Mike Mantler, Muhal Richard Abrams, Dollar Brand, Anthony Braxton, Marion Brown, Jimmy Giuffre, Eddie Gomez, Charlie Haden, Steve Lacy, Yusef Lateef, Gary Peacock, Sun Ra, Archie Shepp, Sonny Sharrock, Manfred Schoof, John Surman, between others. In the middle of the decade, the free jazz had turned into an expression way richly articulated that was including all the subject-matters and was commanding all the routes of development of the jazz. Nevertheless, from 1967 there began to appreciate a clear recession of the favor of the public with regard to the free jazz. Post-bop A certain number of musicians of bop had developed concepts of improvisation more advanced at the end of the year 1950, realizing a “modal jazz” straight impelled by figures as Thousands Davis or, much especially, John Coltrane already at the beginning of the decade of 1960. Its “sheets of sound”, as the critic Ira Gitler baptized to the sound of the quartet of the saxophonist, 36 opened the way for a style that has happened in calling post-bop. This one adopted to the experiences hard bop a good number of the innovations that the free jazz had brought, turning into the line of main development (mainstream) of the modern jazz, conductive thread up to coming to the neo bop or “neo-traditionalism” of the year 1980, headed by Wynton Marsalis. Except exceptions, like Bill Evans, the record stamp Blue Note gathered the main musicians of the style: Wayne Shorter, McCoy Tyner, Herbie Hancock or Lee Morgan. Jazz rock and jazz merger Thousands Davis acting in North Sea Jazz Festival. The throwing in 1970 of Bitches Brew, an album of Thousands Davis that was provided with Tony Williams, Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter or John McLaughlin, between others, supposed a new revolution in the sound of the jazz, introducing an instrumentation and a few rhythmic schemes nearer to the rock and marking the beginning of a new genre that would receive later the denomination of jazz merger. The influence of the groups of rock that were experimenting with the jazz in the epoch (Soft Machine, Blood, Sweat and Tears, Colosseum, Caravan, Nucleus, Chicago and, on all of them, the different formations of Frank Zappa), stopped outlining a genre that would give place later to many other substyles, being particularly clear in aspects like the instrumentation of the new bands of jazz rock – that replaced the double bass for under electrically and where the guitar or the organ plenary meeting right 37 soloists were leaving the rhythmic section to be located like instruments or in the biggest importance of the groups with regard to its members, another characteristic inherited from the world of the rock. One of the first representatives of the new current of the jazz rock was Gary Burton, who, with the help of Steve Swallow, Larry Coryell and Roy Haynes – it had begun experimenting with rítmos of rock on The Time Machine (1966), and it had introduced elements country music in Tennessee Firebird, edited the same year. Tony Williams, who had become famous in the quintet of Thousands Davis, had already edited under its name Life Time (1964) and Spring (1965) before starting its Lifetime, a band that was provided originally with Larry Young and John McLaughlin and that would turn into one of the most excellent groups of genre.

Herbie Hancock was not late in there was erected like one of the maximum representatives of the genre at the head of its group The Headhunters – a band that inspired by the funky-psychedelic rhythms of Sly Stone, achieved the biggest success of sales of the history of the jazz with its album namesake edited in 1973-, while Chick Corea did the proper thing with its Return To Forever, originally with Flora Purim, Joe Farrell, Stanley Clarke y Airto Moreira. Keith Jarrett published Gary Burton and Keith Jarrett in 1970, and did incursions in the Latin jazz in ‘Expectations (1971), while McCoy Tyner collaborated with musicians like Bennie Maupin, Bobby Hutcherson, Gary Bartz, Wayne Shorter, Alice Coltrane or Ron Carter in Expansions (1968), Cosmos or Extensions, both of 1970.39 From the area of the free jazz, musicians like Charlie Haden, Carla Bley, Michael Mantler or Paul Motian were preparing a complex and personal music, with very diverse roots and you influence much heterogense. Larry Coryell was other of the pioneers of the jazz rock, with its participation in the album of 1966 Out of Sight And Sound, of the group “Free Spirits”. The album marked the beginning of a series of recordings under its name that would culminate in Introducing The Eleventh House (1974), the first disc of a band-The Eleventh House – that would place between the most famous of the groups of jazz rock of the decade of 1970. Weather Report, formed originally by Joe Zawinul, Wayne Shorter, Miroslav Vitous, Airto Moreira and Alphonso Mouzon not only turned into the most important group of the movement, but – according to Piero Scaruffi – in one of two most important groups of the history of the jazz.nota 4 The band obtained a considerable success from its beginnings, but the arrival of the bassist Jaco Pastorius in 1976 supposed a new propulsion for the group, which with albumes like Black Market (1976) or Heavy Weather (1977) reached a notable commercial success. John McLaughlin gathered the witness of the revival of the blues that had taken place in the United Kingdom with groups as The Rolling Stones or Cream, but after editing the first album under its name (Extrapolation, 1969) with John Surman and Tony Oxley, he was summoned by Thousands Davis for the recording of Bitches Brew. Its My Goal’s Beyond, of 1971 already openly shows the passion of the musician for the Hindu music, an interest that it will develop with Mahavishnu Orchestra throughout the decade in albumes like The Inner Mountain Flame (1971) or Birds of Fire (1972), and, especially with Shakti, a band that was provided with the musicians’ participation hindues. The baterista and pianist Jack DeJohnette is another key figure of the movement, with a series of albumes-Have You Ever Heard (1970), Collect (1974), Untitled (1977)…-with those that there wanted to carry out a new reading of the cliches of the jazz rock and in that musicians as John Abercrombie or David Murray took part. Gary Bartz had made debut with Pound sterling (1967), an album in which it was showing its deeply rooted style in the tradition of the bebop and its qualities like composer, but after replacing Wayne Shorter in the group of Thousands Davis, Troop formed its “NTU” in 1970, to publish a disc (Harlem Bush Music – Faction, of 1970) in the one that an energetic music was presenting, with elements of the soul, of the funk, of the jazz and of the rock. Billy Cobham – who had taken part in Dreams along with Randy and Michael Brecker and John Abercrombie, and who also had happened briefly for the group of Thousands Davis – edited Spectrum and Crosswinds in 1973, and Entire Eclipse in 1974, all of them albums important in the history of the subgenre. John Abercrombie made debut discograficamente in 1974 with Timeless, with Jack DeJohnette and Jan Hammer to keep on editing albumes in the same line with musicians like Marc Johnson, Peter Erskine, or Dave Holland. The brothers Randy and Michael Brecker formed in 1975 The Brecker Brothers, to edit a music of big complexity on the halfway between the hard bop and the funky before tackling its respective careers in solitary Oregon Of Another Present Era published in 1972 the first album-Music – that was showing a sophisticated combination of jazz, classical music, improvisation, compositiva complexity and ethnic elements. Lonnie Liston Smith edited in 1973 its Astral Travelling, the first disc of a band-The Cosmic Echoes – that soon would derive towards the funky soul with albumes like Expansions (1974). Steps Ahead, a supergroup of virtuosos with Mike Mainieri to the head published its first work-Step By Step – in 1980, the same year as Ronald Shannon Jackson Eye On You published with its group Decoding Society; or that Joseph Bowie, Lester’s brother, published “Defunkt” the first album of its band homonima. Jean Luc Ponty was the person in charge of taking the violin to the age of the electronics, from the beginning of its career next to Frank Zappa in date as early as 1968, happening for its collaborations with John McLaughlin and culminating in its career alone with albumes like Upon The Wings Of Music, of 1975. The bassist and cellist Ron Carter had published Uptown Conversation (1969) with the double bass like protagonist, before editing Piccolo (1977), an album in which he was using the low piccolo, a hybrid between the double bass and the cello. The Czech virtuoso Miroslav Vitous stood out also in the double bass in albumes like Infinite Search (1969), or Purple (1970), but Stanley Clarke was the manager of setting under electrical in the point of view of the fans, with Stanley Clarke (1974) and School Days (1976).

Small horse Pastorius was, nevertheless the big revolutionary of this instrument, so much in its early collaborations with Pat Metheny (Bright Size Life, 1976) or Weather Report (Heavy Weather, 1977) as, especially, with its debut alone that, thrown in 1976 with the title of Small horse Pastorius, it was the disc that, not only it popularized under fretless, but merger placed it like one of the most expressive instruments of the jazz. There stands out the same way, in a line much funky, the bassist Jamaaladeen Tacuma (Show Stopper, 1983). Other important figures, inside a merger style that jazz comes from the free and incorporates elements of the music third stream, were the counterbassist David Friesen (Color Pool, 1975), Collin Walcott (percusionista of Oregon and one of the most innovative musicians in its instrument), the saxophonist John Klemmer (Touch, 1975), the pianists Art Lande (Network Lanta, 1973), and Steve Kuhn (Ecstasy, 1974), and the bassist Steve Swallow (Swallow, 1991).

The electrical guitar had reached thanks to the influence of the rock a popularity without precedents, which was not late in merger turned out to be reflected in the world of the jazz with the appearance of a good number of musicians, who saw it like the domineering instrument in the scene of the jazz, as the saxophone it had been in previous epochs. Sonny Sharrock (Black Woman, 1969; Monkie-Pockie-Boo, 1970) or James Blood Ulmer (Revealing, 1977) they are between the first representatives of this current, as Ralph Towner (Diary, 1973), the guitarist of the band Oregon. Pat Metheny had published in 1976 its Bright Size Life with Small horse Pastorius and Bob Moses, a disc that it had to the electrical guitar like main protagonist but that, also, it was introducing under electrical in the sound of the jazz, and was showing the naturalistic and original, typically “white” style, which Metheny already would develop in later albumes with its band Pat Metheny Group (Group 1978; American Garage, 1979). The Japanese Kazumi Watanabe recorded a series of famous discs, which began with Endless Way (1975), while John Scofield, who had collaborated with Billy Cobham and Charles Mingus, edited its first work alone in 1977, with the title East Meets West. The virtuoso Al DiMeola, published also its first works in the middle of the decade (Land Of The Midnight Sun, 1976; Elegant Gipsy, 1977), as Steve Tibbetts (Steve Tibbets, 1976; Yr, 1980), Steve Khan (Tightrope, 1977; The Blue Man, 1978) and Mike Stern, who would place its career at the beginning of the following decade, next to Billy Cobham and Thousands Davis (1981-1983).

In the European ambience there stood out the Britons Neil Ardley, Mike Westbrook, Mike Gibbs, Kenny Wheeler, John Surman, Keith Tippett, Elton Dean, Basil Kirchin or the group Nucleus; the Norwegians Jan Garbarek y Terje Rypdal; the Danish Niels-Henning Orsted-Pedersen; the Germans Wolfgang Dauner, Joachim Kühn and Eberhard Weber; the Italian Enrico Rava; the Pole Michal Urbaniak; or the Russian Serguei Kuriokhin.

Latin jazz and Afro-Cuban jazz In the first times of the jazz an early incorporation of Latin elements happened already to the musician hot. In fact, the habanera rhythms, calinda, contredanse or fandango were usual in the music of Piece of news Orleans. The presence of Latin elements was supported in the jazz of the 20s and 30s, although without the necessary intensity to gestate a real merger. Nevertheless, to half of the year 1940, the Cuban influence on the bop generated a style of merger which better exponent there were the Machito big band, and the works of Dizzy Gillespie, which were integrating elements typical of the bebop with Afro-Cuban rhythms. All the styles that arose after the age of the swing, the Latin jazz has been one of those that he has enjoyed major popularity, and Sanchez or Mario Bauza.45 have not changed its basic schemes too much along its history, across the work – for quoting only three of the most important – of the bands of Tito Puente, Poncho From middle the decade of 1960 and, especially, during the year 1970, this merger style with Latin music, it settled of definitive form in the scene of the jazz. Inside the wide denomination of “Latin jazz”, music as different is included usually as those of Brazilian origin (bossa it nongoes, especially), those of Cuban origin and others of merger with other music of Latin character (and of special form, the tango). Between many artists who have developed its work in the different variants of this genre, it is necessary to quote, inside the jazz of merger of Brazilian origin, Flora Purim, Airto Moreira, Charlie Byrd, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Joao Gilberto, Ford Powell, Hermeto Pascoal, Dom Um Romão, Egberto Gismonti or Claudio Roditi. And, in the environment of the merger of jazz with the Afro-Cuban and Puerto Rican music, we find Irakere, Arturo Sandoval, Ray Barretto, Emiliano Salvador, Cal Tjader, Boy O’Farrill, Mongo Santamaría, Candid, Sabu Martínez, Chano Pozo, Mongrel Valdes, Steve Turre or Paquito D’Rivera, in addition to pianists like Hilton Ruiz, Gonzalo Rubalcaba and Michel Camilo, in that the Latin element joins of indistinguishable form to its origin bop. Much more attached to the Cuban traditional styles, even to the sauce, we find musicians like Willie Bobo, Cachao, Carlos “Patato” Valdes, Tata Güines, Willie Columbus, Jesus Alemany or Francisco Aguabella, in addition to bands that historically had a big commercial projection, like those of Xavier Cugat and Perez Prado. Out of the Antillean world, stand out musicians who have developed approach works between the jazz and traditional musics of other places of Latin America: Astor Piazzolla (with its discs alone or with Gerry Mulligan), Cat Barbieri, Osvaldo Tarantino, Alex Acuña.46 The style has given birth throughout the years to the whole series of related subgenres between which there are the boogaloo, the Cuban jazz, the Brazilian jazz, the Latin Big Band and, over all in popularity and importance, the bossa nova.45 Flemish jazz and other ethnic mergers The Flemish jazz has its origin in the decade of 1960, when some primitive merger proposals began to arise between the Fleming on behalf of artists like Thousands Davis (Sketches of Spain, 1960; Fleming Sketches, included in Kind of Blue, 1959) or John Coltrane (Ole, 1961). Nevertheless, in Spain he had to wait until 1967, year in which the saxophonist Pedro Iturralde edited its Flemish Jazz (MPS), for a disc that was provided with the collaboration of Paco de Lucía and that is usually considered to be the work fundacional of the genre. Discs as My Spanish Heart de Chick Korea (1976) or Friday Night in San Francisco, a recording of 1980, in trio, of the guitarists Al DiMeola, John McLaughlin y Paco of Lucía, were abounding in the idea of the merger of both genres, inside a current of renewal in the Fleming, which later was named a new Fleming, a concept that De Lucía re-prepared in its works with the sextet integrated by him same, its brother Pepe de Lucía, Ramon de Algeciras, Carles Benavent, Rubem Dantas and Jorge Pardo (Live… One Summer Night, 1984). From middle of this decade, Benavent, Dantas and Brown they initiated its careers alone, helping to consolidate a style where they were not late in there appeared works of figures of the Spanish jazz and the Fleming, like Joan Albert Amargos, The Jar of baby food, Antonio Carmona, Chano Domínguez, angel Rubio, Guillermo McGill, Gerardo Nuñez, Jerry Gonzalez, Juan Manuel Cañizares, Agustín Carbonell “The Ball”, Parakeet Sambeat or Javier Colina, artists who keep on exploring the way opened by Davis, Coltrane, Iturralde and Paco de Lucía more than half a century behind. In the rest of the world different musicians of very diverse traditions keep on preparing stylistic mergers that often they have to the jazz like co-protagonist. This orientation sets off in the decade of 1950, with artists like Dizzy Gillespie, Dollar Brand, Sun Ra or Yusef Lateef, and becomes strong, later, at the end of the year 1960 and in the decade of 1970, when Don Cherry, John McLaughlin, Don Ellis or Andy Narell began to fuse such ethnic elements like instrumentation, armonías or rhythms, of different origins (Africa, the India, Bulgaria, France, Brazil, Japan, the Polynesia, Morocco, the Caribbean Sea…), in works where the improvisation typical of the jazz had an important place. This family of genres of “ethnic merger”, which closeness to the jazz changes from one artist to other, general practitioner usually groups inside the term “world music”, denomination that includes also other styles of small character or not related at all to the jazz. Between the artists who have developed its work in this line, in addition to the said ones, there are Shakti, Babatunde Olatunji, Zakir Hussain, Paul Winter, David Amram, Rabih Abou-Khalil, Anouar Brahem, Paul Horn, Lou Harrison, Codonut, Harry Partch, Trilok Gurtu, Manu Dibango, Lakshminarayanan Shankar, Alpha Blondy, Strunz and Farah, Toshinori Kondo, M’Lumbo, Elek Bacsik, Najma Akhtar, Richard Bona or Hugh Masekela.

The crisis of the jazz and the new traditionalism The heyday of the “neo-traditionalism” that took place with the arrival of the decade of 1980 marked the highest point of the crisis that it had affected to the jazz from the massive popularization of the rock, in the decade of 1960. The jazz was representing for the North American blacks the popular alternative to the classical music, but at the moment when it began to derive, first towards the free jazz and then towards the different mergers that took place in the decade of 1970, it was moving away increasingly from its origins, entering a crisis of identity that at the end of this decade still had not been solved. In this period one usually identified the term “jazz”, simply with the instrumental music, the white musicians were achieving more success that the blacks and the creative panorama in general it was quite discouraging. Nevertheless, the arrival of the neo-traditionalists changed the order of the things: instead of registering a new revolution in the genre, they claimed a return to its origins moving the terms of the debate from the dichotomy Free jazz / Jazz merger to the debate between the defenders of the purity of the style (neo traditionalism) and the followers of its evolucion.49 Scott Hamilton, with its A Is to Good Wind Who Is Blowing Us not Ill (1977) inaugurated the revival of the classic jazz, the same year in which there was published the first disc of the quintet V.S.O.P., led by Herbie Hancock. A return at the beginning of the bop, which turned out to be continued in the work of the pianists Kenny Barron, Joanne Brackeen, Jessica Williams, Mulgrew Miller, Fred Hersch, Marcus Roberts or Brad Mehldau; of the saxophonists Ernie Krivda, Joe Lovano, Bobby Watson, Dave Liebman, Joshua Redman, James Carter or Courtney Pine; of the trumpeters Jack Walrath, Tom Harrell, Terence Blanchard, and Roy Hargrove; or of the trombonista Steve Turre.

Wynton Marsalis deserves separate mention, main representatives of a familiar saga of New Orleans that begins in the work of Ellis Marsalis, father of the previous one (and of Brandford, Delfeayo and Jason, out-standing all of them musical of jazz), and an important educator who had between its pupils most emphasized to Terence Blanchard, Donald Harrison, Harry Connick, Jr., Nicholas Payton, or to Kent and Marlon Jordan, between different.

The arrival to the scene of Wynton Marsalis, considered by the criticism as the most famous musician of jazz from 1980, he supposed the opening of the movement of “Young Lions” (young lions), a movement that it took as proved the hiring on the part of the big record companies – even of those that had never showed any interest in this type of music – of the young talents of the jazz. With an encyclopedic knowledge of the tradition of its instrument, Marsalis has been criticized by its conservative role like governing of “Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra”, a band dedicated to preserving the musical identity of the jazz of the African Americans, but also he has stood out for its role of popularizer of the culture of the jazz, and like introductor of new talents. The contemporary jazz In the middle of the decade of 1980 the collective M – base arose in New York, a group of musicians inspired by the harmonic ideas of Ornette Coleman whose works were turning concerning the free jazz and to the funk, with elements proceeding from the music, the philosophy and the spirituality of the West Africa. Between the representatives most emphasized from the group there are the saxophonists Steve Coleman, Gary Thomas and Greg Osby; the trumpeter Graham Haynes; the trombonista Robin Eubanks; the guitarist Jean-Paul Bourelly; the pianists Geri Allen and Jason Moran; bassist Meshell Ndegeocello; or singer Cassandra Wilson. In 1988 it appears, of the hand of the British DJ Gilles Peterson (dedicated in this epoch to edit remiscellanies of outstanding figures of the jazz with bases hip hop) the term acid jazz applied to a new musical style that was integrating elements of the jazz, of the funk and of the hip hop. The term happened to be the name of a record company created by the same Peterson to give exit to groups of the style and, finally, it was imposed like denomination of the proper genre. Between its first representatives find the guitarist Charlie Hunter or the trio Medeski Martin and Wood, but they were not late in there arose derivations more focused on the dance floors like Stereo MCs, James Taylor Quartet, Brand New Heavies, Groove Collective, Galliano, Incognito or the successful Jamiroquai. Other important bands of the movement were Sheer Grosso, United Future Organization, The Jazz Warriors, Count Basic, or the guitarist Ronny Jordan, that they developed the thickness of its discography either entry the decade of 1990.

In 1975 the North American guitarist William Ackerman had minted the term new age to define a style of instrumental music of atmospheric cut, which origin could be traced on the borders of the jazz with the classical music, the folk, and even with the psychedelic music, the electronics and the oriental philosophies. The musical piece of news directed to a well-off and urban public, was an authentically white music, whose neuralgic center was placing on the Coast West of the United States. Already Tony Scott with its Zen Music For Meditation (1964) and Paul Horn (In India, 1967), between others, they had experimented with the merger of the jazz with the musical east traditions, but the genre had to wait until middle of the decade of 1970 so that musicians as Mark Isham or David Darling should to plan its definitive lines, which remained well established throughout the whole following decade in the work of George Winston, Michael Hedges, Daniel Kobialka, Michael Jones, David Lanz, Liz Story, Mark Nauseef, Glen Velez, Rob Wasserman or the group Shadowfax.

From middle of the decade of 1970 the city of New York was experiencing a “new wave” of musical creativity, both in the world of the rock and in the world of the jazz and the music of avant-garde. The revolution of New York was born of diverse roots, and the racial question was one of them: the white musicians were leading the movement, and the black musicians had been isolated from fact so much from the scene of the music rock as from the classic one. The jazz had crossed previously with other black music – the blues, the funk, the soul…-, but till then it had not done it with styles like the rock or the classical music of avant-garde, traditionally dominated by white musicians. The revolution of New York changed the order of cosas.

Between the first musicians in catalizar all this series of elements the saxophonist John Zorn was; the guitarist Elliott Sharp, whose compositions are an example of synthesis of disharmony, repetition and improvisation; Eugene Chadbourne, who was integrating elements of the jazz of avant-garde with the white music of rural origin; the guitarist Henry Kaiser; the violoncelista Tom Cora; the Irish guitarist Christy Doran; the Jewish baterista Joey Baron; and many other musicians of the same one generacion.56 The revolution of New York allowed to feel so much in the type of material in which the musicians were embarking as in the type of skills that they were using to improvise, gathering all kinds influences and fusing them without conceptual limitations. This way, the saxophonist Ned Rothenberg settled between the first line of the new generations of improvisators. Other musicians, like the trombonista Jim Staley, or Tom Varner, a virtuoso of the French horn, were located between the most original of its generation. Much more well-known, the guitarist Bill Frisell assimilated in its work influences of the jazz and of the rock, but also of the folk, of the music of the marching bands or even of the ecclesiastic music. Soloists the cellist Hank Roberts, or Mike Shrieve (ex-baterista of Santana) they put also its of integration capacity in the first line. The second half of the decade of 1990 knew a revival of the music for big bands, a tendency that had originated in the previous decade, in the musicians’ work like the bassist Saheb Sarbib or the cornetista Butch Morris. The teclista Wayne Horvitz developed its idea of the “progressive jazz of camera”, while the veteran multinstrumentista Marty Ehrlich was gathering the influence of the traditional jazz, the improvisation, the light music and the avant-garde classical music, and the American Maria Schneider, pupil of Gil Evans, resuscitated the style of its teacher in diverse albumes for band. During the decade of 1990 the city of Chicago turned into a focus of musical creativity where there arose figures of interest as the pianist Myra Melford, who had made debut in 1984. The saxophonist Ken Vandermark offered Big Head Heddie in honor to Thelonious Monk and to the guru of the funk George Clinton, before embarking in a singular career on which it would experiment with different formats and approaches. The cellist Fred Lonberg-Holm, ward of Anthony Braxton joined the new wave of creative improvisators, while the saxophonist / clarinettist Scott Rosenberg, another pupil of Braxton, expanded the vocabulary of the jazz with a certain polyphonic lawlessness, already at the beginning of the century XXI.

Before finishing last decade of the XXth century, there appeared in the scene of New York a new generation of young musicians who found in the improvisation the key element of its music: the harpist Zeena Parkins, the flautist Robert Dick, the trumpeter Toshinori Kondo, or the guitarist Alan Licht. Others, like the pianist Uri Caine or the trumpeter Dave Douglas, explored the relation between the hard bop, the free jazz and the music clasica.60 At the end of the XXth century the legacy of the free jazz was very visible between the black community of musicians of jazz, particularly in the scene of New York, where they were emphasizing names like the saxophonist David Ware, the irreverent trombonista Craig Harris, or the pianist Matthew Shipp, who was flirting with the hip hop. The clarinettist of classic formation Don Byron had done its appearance in the scene of New York at the beginning of the decade of 1990, as the saxophonist Roy Nathanson or the trombonista Curtis Fowlkes, both ex-members of Jazz Passengers. Finally, the group B Sharp Jazz Quartet inserted its work between the hard bop and the free jazz 61 Beyond the borders of New York, they kept on appearing in the last years of last century a series of artists, who already would develop the thickness of its work – in which they were re-preparing the concepts established by generations of previous jazz players of multiple and creative ways – in the new century. For example, the bassist Michael Formanek had made debut in 1990, and the Argentinian Guillermo Gregorio or the Canadian Paul Plimley, they had already edited discs in the middle of the same decade. The Yugoslav Stevan Tickmayer for his part, coled The Science Group, an attempt of fusing the chamber music with the unexpected one. Other musicians emphasized from this first generation of the new century, are Greg Kelley, and the Canadian violinist Eyvind Kang, one of the most eclectic musicians of its generacion62 Also at the beginning of the year 2000, there appeared the discs of musicians’ assertion as the trombonista Josh Roseman, the counterbassist Ben Allison, the saxophonist David Binney, or the pianist Jason Lindner, North American all of them. They emphasize also the works of the Frenchman Erik Truffaz and of the Israeli trumpeter Avishai Cohen. The revolution that the electronic music had brought with it exercised also its influence in the development of the jazz, which was present at the emergence of a new generation of improvisators, who were coming from the tradition of the free jazz but who were gathering the influence of the classic avantgarde and of the electronics: Ben Neill, the guitarist and teclista Kevin Drumm, the Swiss percusionista Günter Müller, or Miya Masaoka, of origin Japanese but born in Washington D.C. Other creators, like Tyondai Braxton, or the Norwegian trumpeter Nils Petter Molvær, experimented with the manipulation of orchestral loops and, I marry also of Greg Headley, they manipulated electronically the sounds of its instruments while, finally, groups as Triosk carried important contributions out in the same one direccion.63 In the field of the jazz rap, which had already developed enough in the last decades of the XXth century, and beginning of the XXIst, produces a large number of works to itself, on the part of groups and musicians originated from the hip hop, like Kanye West, Crown City Rockers, Nujabes, A Tribe Called Quest, Madlib, the English duo The Herbaliser, or the French Hocus Pocus, between others.

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