To little of the XXth century began, the white persons and poor Creoles of the Delta of the Mississippi began to be interested by the Hot and its influence produced some changes in the way of touching of the bands of New Orleans: more improvisations developed, the tempos sped up and. looked for less “African” rhythmic structures The new style was “less expressive, but with major technical resources”, with more polished melodies and armonias you “clean”. Also, the piano and the saxophone interfered, and there developed new instrumental skills, like the style tailgate of the trombonists.
Its main figures were, in the first epoch, the bugler Pope Jack Laine, who is reputed like the “father of the dixieland”; the trumpeter Nick La Rocca and its Original Jass; the Louisiana Five of Anthony Lada; the trombonista Edward “Kid” Ory; or “New Orleans Rhythm Kings” of the cornetista Paul Mares. In the s, the Dixieland enjoyed a powerful revival, obtaining world success groups as the Dukes of Dixieland, of the brothers Frank and Fred Assunto, and still nowadays bands exist with names as mellow as Tuxedo Jass Band or Onward Jazz Band.
The jazz of Chicago and New York
The closing for the authorities of New Orleans of the quarter of Storyville in, he supposed an important mishap for most of the musicians of jazz of the area, since on this free time district almost all the places of music were concentrating in vivo. made East initiated the big migration of the musicians of jazz towards the cities of the north, and especially towards Chicago, which was enjoying for then a rough night life, with a powerful blues scene and ragtime, from a decade earlier. King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Sidney Bechet, Jelly Roll Morton or Johnny Dodds, between many others, moved to the «city of the wind» and recorded there its first discs, at the beginning of the decade.
Photo of Eddie Condon taken in New York.
In Chicago a rawer and dynamic style developed, with a plain and laconic language cleared of adornments, economic in resources, area of marshland «in an annoyed ambience, of a heated dynamism, of a rigid tension hot». The sound lost plasticity after the refining fitted for influence of the white musicians and there gave in the proper desincronizacion of the rhythmic African one but, on the contrary, there developed enormously the concept of individual improvisation and the parallel melodies, leaving the polyphonic passages for the final cycle (sock chorus). The thematic material tended to an abandonment of the rags and stomps and its replacement for blues and songs of European influence, with written musical arrangements. In fact, this epoch is that of the explosion of the called «blues outstanding figure», with artists like Bessie Smith, who were surrounding themselves with bands of jazz in replacement of the traditional accompaniment of guitar or piano only.
Duke Ellington touching in Hurricane Club.
The style of Chicago developed as a result of the conjunction of the black musicians of New Orleans and of young students and white fans who were imitating those, and supposed some important changes even in the typical instrumentation, on having begun to place the saxophone. A good number of musicians of big relevancy is representative of the style: Erskine Tate, Eddie Condon, Muggsy Spanier, Wingy Manone, Pee Wee Russell or, like more excellent figure, Bix Beiderbecke.
From much early, the jazz interfered also in New York, initially across the pianists who were touching ragtime and boogie woogie in the honky tonks, as James P. Johnson, Willie “The Lion” Smith or Luckey Roberts, but also thanks to bands, like that of Jimmy Reese Europe or “The Memphis Students”, directed by Will Dixon and Will Marion Cook, in epoch as early as. Some authors emphasize also the role that musicians as Nick La Rocca or the baterista Louis Mitchell, native of Philadelphia, had in the extension of the jazz in city Nevertheless, the real style of New York, or High brow, as he was named in its moment, it began with the band of Fletcher Henderson, in which they touched all the big figures of the jazz of the year. It would be precisely Henderson better who represented the new way of touching a type of stylized, less located and more universal jazz, «realized on the base of a formula of deal that it rests on orchestrations prepared in advance and written for sets which number of instruments was not making the polyphony possible hot». But the school of New York named by major projection even, Duke Ellington proceeding from Washington A. D. , which reached big reputation with its meetings in Cotton Club of Harlem. Other important modality of the style was a Network Nichols and its “Five Pennies”, McKinney’s Cotton Pickers of William McKinney and Don Redman, as well as the band of the pianist Sam Wooding or that of the Panamanian one of birth, Luis Russell.
The style of New York, with the impulse that he supposed to the big bands, was the mainstream of development of the jazz at the end of the decade of, ending in the swing.
The swing was, also, a style rich in big improvisators, many of which established real canones in its respective instruments: Coleman Hawkins, Art Tatum, Chu Berry, Gene Krupa, Teddy Wilson, Fats Waller, Johnny Hodges, Benny Carter, Rex Stewart, Harry Edison and many others. It was also, in parallel, a style that favored the projection of the singers, especially of the feminine singers: Ella Fitzgerald, Ivy Anderson (who remained almost twelve years in the band of Ellington, from ), Billie Holiday, June Christy, Anita O’Day, Lena Horne or Peggy Lee. Some of these instrumentalists were determinant in the process of evolution that took from the swing the be bop and the cool, standing out between them the trumpeter Roy Eldridge and the saxophonist Lester Young.