Free jazz and post-bop
The bop evolved very quickly during the fifties and some musicians (George Russell or Charles Mingus between they) developed, from the concepts of intuition and digression that the musician of Lennie Tristano had announced, formulations similar to those who had already happened in the classical music in the twenties, with the irruption, for example, of the atonalidad in the jazz of the sixties. It is generally accepted by the criticism that, to the margin of the already said precedents, the free jazz takes nature letter in, with the publication of the disc namesake of Ornette Coleman and its double quartet, which supposes a stylistic revolution in the jazz, but “not only that, but a putting in crisis, a rereading and a virtual overcoming of everything what had been the jazz, questioning the sociocultural essentials so much like its historical development”. Coleman had already edited previously some discs that were anticipating this explosion, as The Shape of Jazz to Eats or This Is Our Music, both for Atlantic Records.
The free jazz did without elements till then essential in the jazz, like the swing, the phrasing or the intonation, opening also to influences of music of the world and being politicized of form much ostensible. In the first sixties there was assisted to one, seemingly, irresistible ascension of the free jazz that, in parallel, received an enormous rejections quantity resumibles in only one phrase:« This is not musical». Criticism that, on the other hand, came not only from the public or from specializing journalists, but from jazz musicians, like Roy Eldridge or Quincy Jones. A mediados de the decade, practically all the young jazz musicians were influenced by the “free”. Cecil Taylor, Eric Dolphy and Don Cherry were the main initiators of this line, but them there joined Carla Bley, Mike Mantler, Muhal Richard Abrams, Dollar Brand, Anthony Braxton, Marion Brown, Jimmy Giuffre, Eddie Gomez, Charlie Haden, Steve Lacy, Yusef Lateef, Gary Peacock, Sun Ra, Archie Shepp, Sonny Sharrock, Manfred Schoof, John Surman, between others. In the middle of the decade, the free jazz had turned into an expression way richly articulated that was including all the subject-matters and was commanding all the routes of development of the jazz. Nevertheless, from there began to appreciate a clear recession of the favor of the public with regard to the free jazz
A certain number of musicians of bop had developed concepts of improvisation more advanced at the end of the year, realizing a “modal jazz” straight impelled by figures as Thousands Davis or, much especially, John Coltrane already at the beginning of the decade. Its “sheets of sound”, as the critic Ira Gitler baptized to the sound of the quartet of the saxophonist, opened the way for a style that has happened in calling post-bop. This one adopted to the experiences hard bop a good number of the innovations that the free jazz had brought, turning into the line of main development (mainstream) of the modern jazz, conductive thread up to coming to the neo bop or “neo-traditionalism” of the year, headed by Wynton Marsalis. Except exceptions, like Bill Evans, the record stamp Blue Note gathered the main musicians of the style: Wayne Shorter, McCoy Tyner, Herbie Hancock or Lee Morgan.
Mergers: the decade of
Jazz rock and jazz merger
Thousands Davis acting in North Sea Jazz Festival.
The throwing in of Bitches Brew, an album of Thousands Davis that was provided with Tony Williams, Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter or John McLaughlin, between others, supposed a new revolution in the sound of the jazz, introducing an instrumentation and a few rhythmic schemes nearer to the rock and marking the beginning of a new genre that would receive later the denomination of jazz merger. The influence of the groups of rock that were experimenting with the jazz in the epoch (Soft Machine, Blood, Sweat and Tears, Colosseum, Caravan, Nucleus, Chicago and, on all of them, the different formations of Frank Zappa), stopped outlining a genre that would give place later to many other substyles, being particularly clear in aspects like the instrumentation of the new bands of jazz rock – that replaced the double bass for under electrically and where the guitar or the organ plenary meeting right soloists were leaving the rhythmic section to be located like instruments or in the biggest importance of the groups with regard to its members, another characteristic inherited from the world of the rock.
One of the first representatives of the new current of the jazz rock was Gary Burton, who, with the help of Steve Swallow, Larry Coryell and Roy Haynes – it had begun experimenting with ritmos of rock on The Time Machine, and it had introduced elements country music in Tennessee Firebird, edited the same year. Tony Williams, who had become famous in the quintet of Thousands Davis, had already edited under its name Life Time and Spring before starting its Lifetime, a band that was provided originally with Larry Young and John McLaughlin and that would turn into one of the most excellent groups of genre Herbie Hancock was not late in there was erected like one of the maximum representatives of the genre at the head of its group The Headhunters – a band that inspired by the funky-psychedelic rhythms of Sly Stone, achieved the biggest success of sales of the history of the jazz with its album namesake edited in -, while Chick Corea did the proper thing with its Return To Forever, originally with Flora Purim, Joe Farrell, Stanley Clarke y Airto Moreira. Keith Jarrett published Gary Burton and Keith Jarrett in, and did incursions in the Latin jazz in ‘Expectations, while McCoy Tyner collaborated with musicians like Bennie Maupin, Bobby Hutcherson, Gary Bartz, Wayne Shorter, Alice Coltrane or Ron Carter in Expansions, Cosmos or Extensions, both. From the area of the free jazz, musicians like Charlie Haden, Carla Bley, Michael Mantler or Paul Motian were preparing a complex and personal music, with very diverse roots and you influence much heterogénas.
Weather Report. of left to der. , (kb) Joe Zawinul, Wayne Shorter (sxt), Small horse Pastorius (bj), (bt) Peter Erskine and Bobby Thomas Jr. (PC)
Larry Coryell was other of the pioneers of the jazz rock, with its participation in the album of Out of Sight And Sound, of the group “Free Spirits”. The album marked the beginning of a series of recordings under its name that would culminate in Introducing The Eleventh House, the first disc of a band-The Eleventh House – that would place between the most famous of the groups of jazz rock of the decade. Weather Report, formed originally by Joe Zawinul, Wayne Shorter, Miroslav Vitous, Airto Moreira and Alphonso Mouzon not only turned into the most important group of the movement, but – according to Piero Scaruffi – in one of two most important groups of the history of the jazz. nota The band obtained a considerable success from its beginnings, but the arrival of the bassist Jaco Pastorius in supposed a new propulsion for the group, which with albumes like Black Market or Heavy Weather reached a notable commercial success. John McLaughlin gathered the witness of the revival of the blues that had taken place in the United Kingdom with groups as The Rolling Stones or Cream, but after editing the first album under its name (Extrapolation, ) with John Surman and Tony Oxley, he was summoned by Thousands Davis for the recording of Bitches Brew. Its My Goal’s Beyond, of already openly shows the passion of the musician for the Hindu music, an interest that it will develop with Mahavishnu Orchestra throughout the decade in albumes like The Inner Mountain Flame or Birds of Fire, and, especially with Shakti, a band that was provided with the musicians’ participation hindues.
The baterista and pianist Jack DeJohnette is another key figure of the movement, with a series of albumes-Have You Ever Heard, Collect, Untitled. . . -with those that there wanted to carry out a new reading of the clichés of the jazz rock and in that musicians as John Abercrombie or David Murray took part. Gary Bartz had made debut with Pound sterling, an album in which it was showing its deeply rooted style in the tradition of the bebop and its qualities like composer, but after replacing Wayne Shorter in the group of Thousands Davis, Troop formed its “NTU” in, to publish a disc (Harlem Bush Music – Faction, of ) in the one that an energetic music was presenting, with elements of the soul, of the funk, of the jazz and of the rock. Billy Cobham – who had taken part in Dreams along with Randy and Michael Brecker and John Abercrombie, and who also had happened briefly for the group of Thousands Davis – edited Spectrum and Crosswinds in, and Entire Eclipse in, all of them albumes important in the history of the subgenre. John Abercrombie made debut discograficamente in with Timeless, with Jack DeJohnette and Jan Hammer to keep on editing albumes in the same line with musicians like Marc Johnson, Peter Erskine, or Dave Holland. The brothers Randy and Michael Brecker formed in The Brecker Brothers, to edit a music of big complexity on the halfway between the hard bop and the funky before tackling its respective careers in solitary
The baterista Billy Cobham photographed in Kongsberg Jazz Festival.
Oregon Of Another Present Era published in the first album-Music – that was showing a sophisticated combination of jazz, classical music, improvisation, compositiva complexity and ethnic elements. Lonnie Liston Smith edited in its Astral Travelling, the first disc of a band-The Cosmic Echoes – that soon would derive towards the funky soul with albumes like Expansions. Steps Ahead, a supergroup of virtuosos with Mike Mainieri to the head published its first work-Step By Step – in, the same year as Ronald Shannon Jackson Eye On You published with its group Decoding Society; or that Joseph Bowie, Lester’s brother, published “Defunkt” the first album of its band homonima.
Jean Luc Ponty was the person in charge of taking the violin to the age of the electronics, from the beginning of its career next to Frank Zappa in date as early as, happening for its collaborations with John McLaughlin and culminating in its career alone with albumes like Upon The Wings Of Music. The bassist and cellist Ron Carter had published Uptown Conversation with the double bass like protagonist, before editing Piccolo, an album in which he was using the low piccolo, a hybrid between the double bass and the cello. The Czech virtuoso Miroslav Vitous stood out also in the double bass in albumes like Infinite Search, or Purple, but Stanley Clarke was the manager of setting under electrical in the point of view of the fans, with Stanley Clarke and School Days. Small horse Pastorius was, nevertheless the big revolutionary of this instrument, so much in its early collaborations with Pat Metheny (Bright Size Life, ) or Weather Report (Heavy Weather, ) as, especially, with its début alone that, thrown in with the title of Small horse Pastorius, it was the disc that, not only it popularized under fretless, but merger placed it like one of the most expressive instruments of the jazz. There stands out the same way, in a line much funky, the bassist Jamaaladeen Tacuma (Show Stopper, ). Other important figures, inside a merger style that jazz comes from the free and incorporates elements of the music third stream, were the counterbassist David Friesen (Color Pool, ), Collin Walcott (percusionista of Oregon and one of the most innovative musicians in its instrument), the saxophonist John Klemmer (Touch, ), the pianists Art Lande (Network Lanta, ), and Steve Kuhn (Ecstasy, ), and the bassist Steve Swallow (Swallow, ).
Pat Metheny in the Milan Jazzin Festival.
The electrical guitar had reached thanks to the influence of the rock a popularity without precedents, which was not late in merger turned out to be reflected in the world of the jazz with the appearance of a good number of musicians, who saw it like the domineering instrument in the scene of the jazz, as the saxophone it had been in previous epochs. Sonny Sharrock (Black Woman, ; Monkie-Pockie-Boo, ) or James Blood Ulmer (Revealing, ) they are between the first representatives of this current, as Ralph Towner (Diary, ), the guitarist of the band Oregon. Pat Metheny had published in its Bright Size Life with Small horse Pastorius and Bob Moses, a disc that it had to the electrical guitar like main protagonist but that, also, it was introducing under electrical in the sound of the jazz, and was showing the naturalistic and original, typically “white” style, which Metheny already would develop in later albumes with its band Pat Metheny Group (Group ; American Garage, ). The Japanese Kazumi Watanabe recorded a series of famous discs, which began with Endless Way, while John Scofield, who had collaborated with Billy Cobham and Charles Mingus, edited its first work alone in, with the title East Meets West. The virtuoso Al DiMeola, published also its first works in the middle of the decade (Land Of The Midnight Sun, ; Elegant Gipsy, ), as Steve Tibbetts (Steve Tibbets, ; Yr, ), Steve Khan (Tightrope, ; The Blue Man, ) and Mike Stern, who would place its career at the beginning of the following decade, next to Billy Cobham and Thousands Davis.
In the European ambience there stood out the Britons Neil Ardley, Mike Westbrook, Mike Gibbs, Kenny Wheeler, John Surman, Keith Tippett, Elton Dean, Basil Kirchin or the group Nucleus; the Norwegians Jan Garbarek y Terje Rypdal; the Danish Niels-Henning Orsted-Pedersen; the Germans Wolfgang Dauner, Joachim Kühn and Eberhard Weber; the Italian Enrico Rava; the Pole Michal Urbaniak; or the Russian Serguei Kuriokhin.