Organ, keyboard and synthesizers
The pipes organ, an instrument that was coming from the European ecclesiastic tradition, appeared for the first time in the jazz of the hand of Fats Waller, a musician who bequeathed its interest in the instrument to its most famous pupil, Count Basie, who was already using the electrical version of the instrument. Still in Clare Fischer carried some recordings out with the pipes organ, as Keith Jarret or the Belgian Fred Van Hove had done, but in general, in the world of the jazz Hammond has used the term “organ” in practice how synonymous of the organ. From Fats Waller and Count Basie Wild Bill Davis and Milt Buckner come, while of the tradition of the rhythm and blues, more tied to the development of the soul jazz there come Brother Jack McDuff, Johnny Hammond, Don Patterson, Lou Bennet, Richard “Groove” Holmes, Lonnie Smith, Jimmy McGriff, Charles Earland, Shirley Scott or enclosed Ray Charles. From the world of the rock, musicians like Steve Winwood, To The Kooper, Billy Preston y Booker T. Jones gathered the tradition of the organ of R&B, a tradition that had initiated in the churches when the organ Hammond scarcely had initiated its first steps in the world of jazz.
The first big revolution in the history of the instrument was led by Jimmy Smith, who had come to the scene of the jazz in, to pass, nine years later to Khalid Yasin (also known like Larry Young), a musician in the tradition of John Coltrane who in spite of never having obtained success at commercial level, is between the most influential interpreters in the history of the instrument. In Europe there stood out the Frenchman Eddy Louiss, of Caribbean origins, while during the decade of Valdes and Boy O’Farrill appeared in the scene new values as Carla Bley, Amina Claudine Myers, Mongrel, but in general it is possible to be said that after Khalid Yasin a stagnation took place in the evolution of instrument
Joe Zawinul in a live performance.
From the decade of there began to arise a series of musicians who were adopting the whole series of related instruments of between that the organ was only one more: Joe Zawinul was one of the first teclistas of jazz in wide sense, and one of the most important, and between the instruments that it was using there were the piano, the clavinet, the electrical piano, the electrical organ, as well as a wide range of synthesizers and sound effects. Other outstanding teclistas, almost all proceeding ones from the world of the jazz merger, were Herbie Hancock, George Duke, Jan Hammer, Chick Corea, Stu Goldberg, Kenny Kirkland, Patrice Rushen, Bob James, Richard Tee, Jeff Lorber, Barry Miles, Mike Mandel (of the group The Eleventh House), Lyle Mays, Dave Grusin, the Bulgarian Milcho Leviev, Ian Underwood (multiinstrumentalist who took part in a lot of works of Frank Zappa), Joe Sample, Mark Soskin and David Sancious, as well as the Dutch Jasper they go ‘t Hof, the Danish Kenneth Knudsen, the Britons Geoff Castle, Gordon Beck and John Taylor, and the Germans Wolfgang Dauner and Joachim Kühn, between others great
The synthesizer developed by Robert Moog, had become popular suddenly in thanks to the work of Walter Carlos Switched-On Bach, album that preceded the successful sound-track of the movie The mechanical orange, also of Carlos, and that later would have a consequence: Switched-On Bach II. The artists first in experimenting with the synthesizer (John Cage, Terry Riley. . . ) were not coming from the world of the jazz, but from other ambiences, and in fact, the jazz had to wait for the artists’ arrival as Paul Bley, Sun Ra, Richard Teitelbaum, George Lewis, Joe Gallivan, Pete Levin or the German Wolfgang Dauner so that the new instrument should to do a hollow to itself in the preferences of the public and of musicos.