Pop merger and smooth jazz
The vocalist Al Jarreau in North Sea Jazz Festival.
In the middle of the decade of the soul jazz and the jazz of merger experienced a turn towards areas more commercial that it had like protagonists to out-standing jazz musicians like George Benson. Benson had initiated its career as guitarist next to the organist Jack McDuff, in, and after having registered a series of acclaimed discs in the tradition bop it was located, from middle of the decade of, like a commercial phenomenon with albumes like Breezin or Give me the Night, in which it was giving priority to its facet as singer. Chuck Mangione, from a similar perspective, specialized in orchestral ballads that were integrating to equal parts elements bebop with light melodies inspired by the most commercial pop, inaugurating on discs as Bellavia or chase the Clouds Away the sound typical of what then would be known like smooth jazz. The Jarreau had been begun by a promising career as singer of jazz with We Got By, but soon it derived towards the ballads interpretation soul and jazz – pop of more commercial nature (Jarreau, ).
The Yellowjackets for his part, was exhibiting a sound on the halfway between the jazz more experimental merger of Weather Report and the most commercial pop-soul (Mirage to Trois, Samurai Samba). Also already in the year, the band Spyro Gyra obtained a commercial success without precedents with a music that was mixing elements of light pop, the soul and the jazz merger, playing an important role on having acquainted the public not made fond with the sounds of the jazz
The smooth jazz developed from a more commercial remaking of the legacy that the merger musicians had left, being characterized by the frequent use of synthesizers; for a light rhythm and without pretensions, of bases funky; for a sound elegant and removed from the rationality of the bebop or of the energy of the soul jazz or of the funk; and where the general contribution of the band was mattering more than each of its elements separately. Between other artists who have been employed at the genre it is necessary to emphasize David Sanborn, Russ Freeman, Bob James, Ben Sidran, Larry Carlton, Najee, Eric Marienthal, Jeff Lorber or Fattburger.
Flemish jazz and other ethnic mergers
The guitarist Paco de Lucia during a concert along with Al Di Meola and John McLaughlin.
The Flemish jazz has its origin in the decade of, when some primitive merger proposals began to arise with the Fleming on behalf of artists like Thousands Davis (Sketches of Spain, ; Fleming Sketches, included in Kind of Blue, ) or John Coltrane (Ole, ). Nevertheless, in Spain he had to wait until, year in which the saxophonist Pedro Iturralde edited its Flemish Jazz (MPS), for a disc that was provided with the collaboration of Paco de Lucia and that is usually considered to be the work fundacional of the genre. Discs as My Spanish Heart de Chick Korea or Friday Night in San Francisco, a recording of, in trio, of the guitarists Al DiMeola, John McLaughlin y Paco of Lucia, were abounding in the idea of the merger of both genres, inside a current of renewal in the Fleming, which later was named a new Fleming, a concept that De Lucia re-prepared in its works with the sextet integrated by him same, its brother Pepe de Lucia, Ramon de Algeciras, Carles Benavent, Rubem Dantas and Jorge Pardo (Live. . . One Summer Night, ). From middle of this decade, Benavent, Dantas and Brown they initiated its careers alone, helping to consolidate a style where they were not late in there appeared works of figures of the Spanish jazz and the Fleming, like Joan Albert Amargos, The Jar of baby food, Antonio Carmona, Chano Dominguez, angel Rubio, Guillermo McGill, Gerardo Nuñez, Jerry Gonzalez, Juan Manuel Cañizares, Agustin Carbonell “The Ball”, Parakeet Sambeat or Javier Colina, artists who keep on exploring the way opened by Davis, Coltrane, Iturralde and Paco de Lucia more than half a century behind
John McLaughlin with Remember Shakti.
In the rest of the world different musicians of very diverse traditions keep on preparing stylistic mergers that often they have to the jazz like co-protagonist. This orientation sets off in the decade of, with artists like Dizzy Gillespie, Dollar Brand, Sun Ra or Yusef Lateef, and becomes strong, later, at the end of the year and in the decade of, when Don Cherry, John McLaughlin, Don Ellis or Andy Narell began to fuse such ethnic elements like instrumentation, armonias or rhythms, of different origins (Africa, the India, Bulgaria, France, Brazil, Japan, the Polynesia, Morocco, the Caribbean Sea. . . ), in works where the improvisation typical of the jazz had a place important.
This family of genres of “ethnic merger”, which closeness to the jazz changes from one artist to other, general practitioner usually groups inside the term “world music”, denomination that includes also other styles of small character or not related at all to the jazz. Between the artists who have developed its work in this line, in addition to the said ones, there are Shakti, Babatunde Olatunji, Zakir Hussain, Paul Winter, David Amram, Rabih Abou-Khalil, Anouar Brahem, Paul Horn, Lou Harrison, Codonut, Harry Partch, Trilok Gurtu, Manu Dibango, Lakshminarayanan Shankar, Alpha Blondy, Strunz and Farah, Toshinori Kondo, M’Lumbo, Elek Bacsik, Najma Akhtar, Richard Bona or Hugh Masekela.
The decade. The crisis of the jazz and the new traditionalism.
The trumpeter Wynton Marsalis in the Jazz Festival of West Orange, New Jersey.
The heyday of the “neo-traditionalism” that took place with the arrival of the decade of marked the highest point of the crisis that it had affected to the jazz from the massive popularization of the rock, in the decade. The jazz was representing for the North American blacks the popular alternative to the classical music, but at the moment when it began to derive, first towards the free jazz and then towards the different mergers that took place in the decade of, it was moving away increasingly from its origins, entering a crisis of identity that at the end of this decade even had not been solved. In this period one usually identified the term “jazz”, simply with the instrumental music, the white musicians were achieving more success that the blacks and the creative panorama in general it was quite discouraging. Nevertheless, the arrival of the neo-traditionalists changed the order of the things: instead of registering a new revolution in the genre, they claimed a return to its origins moving the terms of the debate from the dichotomy Free jazz / Jazz merger to the debate between the defenders of the purity of the style (neo traditionalism) and the followers of its evolucion.
Scott Hamilton, with its A Is to Good Wind Who Is Blowing Us not Ill inaugurated the revival of the classic jazz, the same year in which there was published the first disc of the quintet V. S. O. P. , led by Herbie Hancock. A return at the beginning of the bop, which turned out to be continued in the work of the pianists Kenny Barron, Joanne Brackeen, Jessica Williams, Mulgrew Miller, Fred Hersch, Marcus Roberts or Brad Mehldau; of the saxophonists Ernie Krivda, Joe Lovano, Bobby Watson, Dave Liebman, Joshua Redman, James Carter or Courtney Pine; of the trumpeters Jack Walrath, Tom Harrell, Terence Blanchard, and Roy Hargrove; or of the trombonista Steve Turre.
Separate mention is deserved by Wynton Marsalis, the main representative of a familiar saga of New Orleans that begins in the work of Ellis Marsalis, father of the previous one (and of Brandford, Delfeayo and Jason, out-standing all of them musical of jazz), and an important educator who had between its pupils most emphasized to Terence Blanchard, Donald Harrison, Harry Connick, Jr. , Nicholas Payton, or to Kent and Marlon Jordan, between different The arrival to the scene of Wynton Marsalis, considered by the criticism as the most famous musician of jazz from, he supposed the opening of the movement of “Young Lions” (young lions), a movement that it took as proved the hiring on the part of the big record companies – even of those that had never showed any interest in this type of music – of the young talents of the jazz. With an encyclopedic knowledge of the tradition of its instrument, Marsalis has been criticized by its conservative role like governing of “Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra”, a band dedicated to preserving the musical identity of the jazz of the African Americans, but also he has stood out for its role of popularizer of the culture of the jazz, and like introductor of new talentos.
The movement M – base and the acid jazz
Promotional photo of the British band of acid Unknown jazz.
In the middle of the decade of the collective M – base arose in New York, a group of musicians inspired by the harmonic ideas of Ornette Coleman whose works were turning concerning the free jazz and to the funk, with elements proceeding from the music, the philosophy and the spirituality of the West Africa. Between the representatives most emphasized from the group there are the saxophonists Steve Coleman, Gary Thomas and Greg Osby; the trumpeter Graham Haynes; the trombonista Robin Eubanks; the guitarist Jean-Paul Bourelly; the pianists Geri Allen and Jason Moran; bassist Meshell Ndegeocello; or singer Cassandra Wilson.
In it appears, of the hand of the British DJ Gilles Peterson (dedicated in this epoch to edit remiscellanies of outstanding figures of the jazz with bases hip hop) the term acid jazz applied to a new musical style that was integrating elements of the jazz, of the funk and of the hip hop. The term happened to be the name of a record company created by the same Peterson to give exit to groups of the style and, finally, it was imposed like denomination of the proper genre. Between its first representatives find the guitarist Charlie Hunter or the trio Medeski Martin and Wood, but they were not late in there arose derivations more focused on the dance floors like Stereo MCs, James Taylor Quartet, Brand New Heavies, Groove Collective, Galliano, Incognito or the successful Jamiroquai. Other important bands of the movement were Sheer Grosso, United Future Organization, The Jazz Warriors, Count Basic, or the guitarist Ronny Jordan, that they developed the thickness of its discography either entry the decade.