As it had happened with the flute a few years earlier, the violin knew in the decade of a period of splendor that was turning out to be somewhat paradoxical if there is born in mind the role that had redeemed the instrument in the history of the jazz. In the first bands of New Orleans it was relatively usual, and some of the most important figures of the epoch were violinists (John Robechaux, Will Marion Cook, Johnny Schenk. . . ). Nevertheless, the instrument was not provided with a stamp so powerful as that of the wind instruments, by what its role remained relegated to of those.
It was supported in a background because it was an instrument of big tradition in the bands, but with the arrival of Joe Venuti, the first big violinist of importance, they began changing them cosas. your short duets with Eddie Lang of the second half of the decade of turned out to be very influential; but, after the Lang death to medidados of the following decade, Venuti was leaving progressively the stages to return triumphally many years later, at the end of the decade. In the year, the violin was supported with a central role in the style of merger that was known as a western swing, as well as in the so called jazz manouche.
The violinist of jazz Stephane Grappelli.
Frame in its beginning, precisely, in this style, the Frenchman Stephane Grappelli, was one of the biggest violinists of jazz of all the times, one of the first ones (with Venuti, Lang and Stuff Smith) and one of the biggest persons in charge of the definitive acceptance of the instrument in the world of the jazz. Its short duets with Django Reinhardt in Quintette du Hot Club of France, from until, established it like one of the biggest figures of the violin, since Grappelli was capable of maintaining up to its death, that it took place when it was provided with años. For his part, Eddie South, who would record with Grapelli in, he was a brilliant violinist, a whiz kid who did not go so far as to reach the Venuti reputation and who of not being for the prevailing racism in its epoch had been an excellent interpreter classic
Stuff Smith was one of the biggest figures of the violin of the age pre-bop. He was an artist who was quoting Louis Armstrong between its biggest influences and of who its followers were saying that it was overcoming in talent to all its competidores. The multiinstrumentalist Ray Nance was one of the best violinists of the decade of, in addition to an excellent singer and bailarin.
Dr. L. Subramaniam.
Jean-Luc Ponty, born in, turned into one of the pioneers of the electrical violin in the ambience of the jazz rock of the decade. Don “Sugarcane” Harris, violinist who disappeared soon of the scene, heads together with Ponty the list of modern violinists, integrated also by a series of musicians who in many cases arose in parallel with them, as there are Mike White, Jerry Goodman, Steve Kindler, John Blake, the Poles Zbigniew Seifert and Michal Urbaniak, the Frenchman Didier Lockwood, the brothers hindues L. Subramaniam and L. Shankar, in addition to Leroy Jenkins, Alan Silva, Billy Bang and Ramsey Ameen in the ambience of the free jazz.
The violin maintains an important legacy between the musicians of jazz of Europe, continent where there have arisen most of its most illustrious representatives and to which there have moved some of the biggest American figures, as Eddie South, Stuff Smith and Alan Silva; but also there maintains its validity in the United States, which keep on giving young figures as important as Regina Carter, one of the most versatile and sophisticated interpreters of the contemporary scene.
Until approximately, the list of instruments commonly accepted in the formations and bent of jazz it was small, and it was stemming from the instruments that there were using the musicians of the age of New Orleans: two instruments of the family of the metal (trumpet and trombonist), the group of tongue (saxophone and clarinet) and the rhythmic section formed by the battery, the piano, the double bass and the guitar. With the course of the history, different instruments were adapting themselves to these classic formations up to the period of the electrification of the jazz at the beginning of the decade of, a factor that turned out to be key in the later development of the history of the jazz, in whose history had always had a determinant role the discovery of new stamps and texturas.
The violoncello, for example, was introduced in the jazz by the counterbassist Oscar Pettiford; the low clarinet, for Eric Dolphy; the oboe and the bassoon, for Yusef Lateef; Roland Rasaan Kirk obtained fame on having touched two primitive saxophones simultaneously. The harp gained exhibition thanks to the work of Alice Coltrane, but before her, Corky Hale and Dorothy Ashby had tried to touch jazz with the instrument in the decade of, as well as Caspar Reardon. nota The tuba, precursor of the double bass in the bands of New Orleans, it disappeared later, but it has been reincorporated in the history of the jazz thanks to the musicians’ work like Howard Johnson, Don Butterfield, Bob Stewart, Joe Daley, Earl McIntyre and Dave Bargeron.
An instrument that appeared occasionally in the epoch of the swing was the accordion (Ernie Felice touched with Benny Goodman), which named at least by relief: Art Van Damme, who developed a phrasing very near to that of a saxo baritone. Inside the style of the Coast West, we find another important name: Pete Jolly. In the last decades of the XXth century, several musicians of contemporary jazz, like the Belgian Fred Van Hove and the French Michel Portal and Richard Galliano, have used of form prevalente this instrument or its variant: the bandoneon, with which it had already realized experiences of merger Astor Piazzolla (along with Gerry Mulligan).
The musician of Belgian jazz Toots Thielemans.
The harmonica in the jazz began with the artists’ work of blues that were touching the diatonic harmonica, like Sonny Boy Williamson I, Sonny Boy Williamson II, Sonny Terry, Junior Wells, Shakey Jake Harris, Little Walter, Big Walter Horton, James Cotton, Tortoiseshell Bell and Whispering Smith, but it would have one of its biggest exponents in the Belgian Toots Thielemans, who touches the chromatic instrument and does it with the same agility and with the same wealth of ideas as the big saxophonists. In the blues rock, stood out white musicians as Paul Butterfield and John Mayall. Magic Dick has reached port alone high quality in the ambience of the rock, and Stevie Wonder has combined the delicacy of Toots Thielemans with the influence of the blues, as Mauricio Einhorn native has done with the music of its Brazil
The multiinstrumentalist Yusef Lateef.
Julius Watkins was pioneering in the use of the horn in the jazz with its recordings of the decade of, although he would be John Graas who more was adapting it to the jazz; while Yusef Lateef, well-known multiinstrumentalist, was one of the first musicians of jazz in using the oboe and the bassoon, in addition to the whole series of exotic instruments like the arghul, a species of Egyptian oboe. Bob Cooper touched the oboe and the English horn in some recordings, as Paul McCandless (of the group Oregon) and Frank Tiberi. The Dutch multiinstrumentalist Han Bennik has touched in the field of the jazz the dung-dkar, a decorated giant conch that is used in the Tibet.
Controler of the EWI
Controler of Lyricon II
Tom Scott, Michał Urbaniak, Sonny Rollins, Wayne Shorter and Michael Brecker have used occasionally the EWI (electronic wind instrument), a synthesizer of Akai whose controler is a wind instrument similar to the saxophone in the mouthpiece and in the employment of the fingers to produce them notas. Instrument similar and previous to the EWI is the liricon (lyricon), of that it is said that the first musician in using it professionally was Chuck Greenberg, the director of the band Shadowfax. Tambien Michał Urbaniak has touched it and, between others, Tom Scott, which can be heard doing it, for example, on the disc of L. Subramaniam Spanish Wave.
With regard to the stringed instruments, the mandolin was introduced in the jazz by musicians near to the country music like Tiny Moore and Kenneth C. Burns (meet as Jethro Burns), but it was used later by John Abercrombie and, especially, by David Grisman. The violoncello was introduced by the counterbassists Harry Babasin and Oscar Pettiford, but it has between its best interpreters Abdul Wadud and David Darling, in addition to David Eyges, Irene Aebi, Tristan Honsinger and the Frenchman Jean-Charles Capon. The stick, hybrid instrument of ropes or more, has been used by Emmet Chapman and by Tony Levin. Don Cherry has used instruments proceeding from Lapland, Africa, the Tibet, the India and China. Collin Walcott and Bill Plummer have used the sitar on jazz discs. Marian Charlie was touching the nagaswaram, Indian instrument similar to the oboe; it can be heard, for example, in the piece Parvati’s Dance (The dance of Pārvatī), of its disc Helen Trees. Stephan Micus learned to touch multitude of exotic instruments like zithers of Bavaria, flutes of bamboo of Japan, the rebab of Afghanistan, the Scotch bagpipes and still different of Bali, of the India and of the Tibet. Por ultimo, the trombonista Steve Turre has emphasized for the frequent use that it has done from the sea conches in its recordings.
The voice and the jazz
The jazz was born straight of the vocal music, and this way it is no wonder that many musicians try to imitate the human voice with its instruments, a phenomenon that is particularly clear in the sounds growl of trumpeters and trombonistas. On the other hand, the influence of the instrumentalists on the singers of jazz is undoubted, up to the point that its norms determine the standards of the above mentioned, who usually treat its voice as if it was an instrument. From this point of view the canones of the European classical music (this is, the purity of the voice, its volume and its record) are completely irrelevant for the vocalists of jazz, who in many cases have ugly voices and records much limited from the perspective of the canones clasicos.